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Besides being prince elector, he was Arch-chancellor of Italy as well, technically from 1238 and permanently from 1263 until 1803.

Following the Battle of Worringen in 1288, Cologne gained its independence from the archbishops and became a Free City.

Cologne is a major cultural centre for the Rhineland; it hosts more than 30 museums and hundreds of galleries.

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Archbishop Sigfried II von Westerburg was forced into exile in Bonn.

The archbishop nevertheless preserved the right of capital punishment.

"Cologne", the French version of the city's name, has become standard in English as well.

The city functioned as the capital of the Roman province of Germania Inferior and as the headquarters of the Roman military in the region until occupied by the Franks in 462.

In 310 under Constantine a bridge was built over the Rhine at Cologne.

Roman imperial governors resided in the city and it became one of the most important trade and production centres in the Roman Empire north of the Alps. Maternus, who was elected as bishop in 313, was the first known bishop of Cologne.

In 843, Cologne became a city within the Treaty of Verdun-created East Francia.

In 953, the archbishops of Cologne first gained noteworthy secular power, when bishop Bruno was appointed as duke by his brother Otto I, King of Germany.

These two trade routes were the basis of Cologne's growth. The economic structures of medieval and early modern Cologne were characterised by the city's status as a major harbour and transport hub on the Rhine.

Craftsmanship was organised by self-administering guilds, some of which were exclusive to women.

The bombing reduced the population by 95%, mainly due to evacuation, and destroyed almost the entire city.

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