Boundaries in dating summary

An excellent example of this is the work of Al-Idrisi, an Arab scholar in the court of King Roger II of Sicily.

In the period around 1154 he produced a number of outstanding ‘world’ maps and geographic books.

This tablet (circa 600BC), which is in the collection of the British Museum, is an excellent example of Babylonian clay tablet maps.

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See About Projections for information about modern conventions.

In Europe, the Renaissance period brought a number of significant changes which hugely affected mapping: All these led to a massive expansion in geographic knowledge and mapping.

One interesting development was the adoption of the principle of having Jerusalem in the centre of a ‘world’ map and the Orient (Asia) at the top of the map.

Also, in part as a religious statement but also for artistic reasons, maps drawn in this time were also heavily decorated.

In Europe during this period, there was little progress in improving the science of mapping and geography.

As most maps were produced within monasteries, religious zeal tended to dominate mapping.

They are what make life worth living, or sometimes ending.

So it is not surprising that most of the great classical philosophers—Plato, Aristotle, Spinoza, Descartes, Hobbes, Hume—had recognizable theories of emotion, conceived as responses to certain sorts of events of concern to a subject, triggering bodily changes and typically motivating characteristic behavior.

In about 150 AD he famously published a scientific treatise titled Geographia (in English Geography).

This contained thousands of references and maps of various parts of the world – with longitude and latitude lines.

The Greeks and Romans continued to refine the art of map making, culminating with the work of Claudius Ptolemaeus (in English Ptolemy).

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